None is the victor but God:

In our visit to Al-hambra palace in Granada, we found a phrase engraved on the walls which said “None is the victor but Allah (The One True God)“. My eyes burst into tears because the breeze of the glorious history of Muslims was around everywhere. I imagined the days of yore when Muslim scientists used to teach the Arabs and the western world medicine, pharmacy, geometry, astronomy, and poetry. As a matter of fact, Muslims had also established the first university all over Europe in Spain. Still in my imagination, I also experienced the days of Abdul-Rahman Ad-Dakhil[1], whose army girded Italy and France; I also imagined the days of Al-Mo’tassim[2], who set a whole army to defend a Muslim woman whose garment was raised by a Roman man after she cried “O Mu’tassim help”! I was really surprised by the claim made by some people that abiding by the teachings of Islam holds us back. My wandering got distracted when the Spanish tour guide said: The phrase engraved on the wall means “ None is the victor but Allah“, in Arabic. If we have any Arabs here, let them emphasize that in a loud voice. I then said loudly: Yes, none is the victor but Allah, and my heart jumped from joy.

And a witness among the family testified:

The famous German writer, Sigrid Hunke, the author of the book “God’s Sun over the Occident”[3] that was published on 1960, reproduced an important and funny text. It discusses a situation that imitates the reality of many Muslims today.

The speaker that talked in the text was the bishop of Cordoba (Alvaro), which was during the era of the flourishing of Islamic culture.

He was complaining that many of his Christian brethren read the legends of Arab, and studied the writings of Muslim philosophers and scholars. It wasn’t to refute them, rather it was to learn Arabic and to proficiently be able to argue eloquently, and with fine gustation. He said:

“Where, nowadays, is that un-specialized Christian who reads Latin interpretations of the Bible? In fact, who amongst them, even studies the four Bibles. What a pity! The Christian young men knew nothing but Arabic language and literature! They profoundly studied the Arabic references, exerting all their efforts and spending large sums of money to buy them, and compile huge libraries. They told everyone that the Arabic literature is worth of respect and admiration at that time, to the point that if anyone tried to convince them to plea with the Christian books, they would declare that these books never grab their attention. What a misfortune! Christians have forgotten their mother tongue; you would rarely find one in a thousand who could write a simple correct letter in Latin. Vice versa happened in relation to Arabic whether phrasing, writing, and composing. Some of them might even excel in competing with the Arabs themselves”.

Muslim scientists’ discoveries were the accredited ones during the middle centuries. Muslim scientists used to worship God (Allah) and draw nearer to Him with their knowledge, without any signs of contradiction between religion and science. Yet, most of them were scholars in their religion, as well as being scientists.

The Muslim scientists put an experimental, materialistic, and rational approach for research. It was totally different from the Greek approach, as they also put an independent scientific theory for knowledge.

Even in the modern age, there were great scientists who won the Noble prize in medicine and physics without viewing any opposition between science and religion.

The religion vs science conflict never appeared across history, even in Judaism. For many ages, the dominance was always given to religion, and the scientific development was slowly moving forward according to necessities only, or perhaps it was mixed with legendries and paganism.

However, this conflict appeared in the era of church domination, after nine centuries of the appearance of Christianity.

The issue of religion vs science conflict was declared during the era of the European boom, and the firm stands of scientists was then against the church control.

Atheism was developed by humans in various forms, but it was obviously declared by the people of the previous scriptures. The reason for this is because the complicated distorted concept of God was put in these books; it opposes the simple concept which God has put naturally in people’s hearts.

In addition, one of the reasons which encouraged people to Atheism and the demand for the replacement of religion with science, was the unacceptable commands from both religious representatives and institutes that aimed at earning worldly and political benefits.

The world then suffered from deterioration in the moral, humanistic values, and intellect due to this struggle between religion and science.

Science in Qur’an:

God has mentioned many verses in the Noble Quran which encourage stimulating human mind, alerting senses, contemplation, and meditation.

Have they not considered how God begins creation and then repeats it? Indeed that, for God, is easy. Say, [O Muhammad], Travel through the land and observe how He began creation. Then God will produce the final creation. Indeed God, over all things, is competent. [4]

Indeed, in the creation of the heavens and the earth and the alternation of the night and the day are signs for those of understanding. Who remember God while standing or sitting or [lying] on their sides and give thought to the creation of the heavens and the earth, [saying], Our Lord, You did not create this aimlessly; exalted are You [above such a thing] ; then protect us from the punishment of the Fire. [5]

The first verses that were revealed have spoken on science generally, and on the creation of human being in particular. This wonderful blending in the integration between Science and Faith is manifestly shown in many verses.

Recite in the name of your Lord who created (1) Created man from a clinging substance (2) Recite, and your Lord is the most Generous (3) Who taught by the pen (4) Taught man that which he knew not. [6]

We find here that the noble verses referred to looking at and contemplating the sowing of rain, along with the different colors of fruits, mountains, people and animals, including a clear indication of the universality of science and knowledge in all its specialties, which made religion and science two integral parts.

Have you not seen that God sends down water from the sky? With it We produce fruits of various colors. And in the mountains are streaks of white and red—varying in their hue—and pitch-black. Likewise, human beings, animals, and livestock come in various colors. Only those fear God, from among His servants, who have knowledge. Indeed, God is Exalted in Might and Forgiving.[7]

Why is the need for religion?

Hans Schwarz, the Professor of Theology said: “Although science is very important, it can be used as a tool for destruction just as it is used in construction. As then, comes the role of faith, clarifying that the practical experiment cannot have all the answers”.

He also said: “Faith and knowledge need each other, and Scientists should admit that they often use faith to be able to understand the deep relations between the natural phenomena they observe”.

Schwarz also viewed that Scientists do not have all the facts and answers as they claim. The inquiries they face every day are the best evidence to that, especially those who investigate the origin of life. One day, they would reach a conclusion, but it gets contradicted by somebody on another day.

Questioning the origin of our life and the purpose of living, is one thing that science cannot give an answer to. Instead, it has given the turn to metaphysics to provide the answer.

The Hiroshima accident and other disasters that occurred because of the scientific inventions have caused science to lose its innocence.

Karl Jaspers, the philosopher, along with others, have called science as a superstition.

From what we can conclude is that it is impossible to answer the questions on the origin, purpose, and ethics of life along with maintaining scientific development, except by achieving conformity between science and religion.

Atheism of the gaps not God of the gaps:

I had a conversation with a Russian atheist who asked me many questions. One of which was: Can the Creator create a big rock that He cannot lift?

I was actually astonished by his question. The first time I read about atheists asking those types of questions was the day before I had this conversation with him, so it was a very strange coincidence.

However, whether my answer was yes or no to his question, it would show that as if the Creator is not Omnipotent, (may He be Exalted to that).

I told him: Well can you draw me a circular triangle?

He directly answered: You are manipulating with speech.

I told him: It was you who manipulated, not me. Your question has no meaning; it doesn’t make sense. The One Unique Creator does not do whatever doesn’t befit Him, may He be Exalted to that. Then I gave him a simple example to just clarify the idea for him.

I told him: Any priest or religious man of esteem cannot go out naked in the street, despite his ability to do that, but he cannot go out in front of people that way. Such an action is not suitable for his religious rank.

God has the best example. He is capable of doing anything, but He only does what befits His Majesty and Glory.

He said: God does not exist; science is the only way to truth.

I proceeded: This statement is not a scientific release that is based on evidence and experimental observations. Thus, we cannot accept it as a fact. The truth is that we know things do not immerge without a cause, not to mention this huge populated universe and the creatures there that own an intangible sense, and obey the non-materialistic mathematical theories.

He said: You! The believers adopt the “god of the gaps”[8] principle. When you fail to provide a scientifically explanation to anything, you present the deity as a cover to your ignorance and mental stupidity. At the same time, you cite this ignorance as evidence on the existence of your god. I.e. whenever you find a gap in science, you attribute it to the deity.

I told him: Is referring to the plane manufacturer when misunderstanding the mechanism of operating the motor considered a gap in our intellect? Despite that the manufacturer of the plane has no existence in any of the steps involved in operating the motor, but he is still responsible for the existence of the mechanisms we know.

Science concluded that the universe was evolved from nothing, while the same science taught us that matter does not perish and is not emerged from nonexistence, the thing that troubled scientists. If the matter was not emerged from nothing, how come that the whole universe evolved from nonexistence?? Here comes the role of religion that explains what science failed in explaining.

Our Deity is not a “god of the gaps” that evolved from ignorance, but He is the cause of every mechanism discovered by science.

I proceeded: You are the ones adopting the “atheism of the gaps” principle. You use your inability or lack of desire to observe the origin of the universal laws, as an evidence that this origin does not exist. This in fact, is the largest gap of consciousness and logic, isn’t that the atheism of the gaps??

I continued: In order to explain the existence of a limited materialistic universe, we need an independent eternal source that is not subjected to matter. Science can only study the sensible or visual things, which are the things of limited physical properties. Hence, we cannot in any means explain the existence of the universe by science alone.

Nature, with all its properties, is nothing but one of the facts of the universe. It is not an explanation to the existence of the universe, and all the laws discovered are not a denial of the existence of the inventor, rather, it is an indication to His Creation.

For example: Whoever deposits an amount of money into a savings institution every month, then he’d go to the bank at the end of the year to receive the money he put with the profits. The accountant then tells him that the multiplication law that they used in calculating the sum was the one which generated the money for him.

In fact, if this person didn’t deposit his money, his balance would have been zero. Therefore, claiming that the laws of physics are the ones which originated the universe is the real foolishness. Theories and laws only describe the path of the things precisely, but they cannot originate anything from nonexistence.

The laws of motion can only describe the path of the basketball, but it is the hands of the player that moves the ball. Accordingly, laws need a form of existence that is influenced by a specific power, in a specific place and time. Without these elements, these laws are useless; rather, they will never exist.

Religion provides us with what science cannot provide:

With science, man can make a rocket, but he cannot taste the beauty of an art painting or value things. Science can never acknowledge us of evil and good. With science, we can know a bullet can kill, but we can never realize that it is wrong to use it in killing others.

Albert Einstein, the famous physicist said: “Science can never be a source for morals,There is no doubt that there are ethical foundations for science, but we cannot talk about the scientific principles for morals. Every attempt in trying to submit morals to the laws of science and equations will surely fail”.

Emmanuel Kant, the well-known German philosopher, said: “Ethical evidence for the existence of a deity has been established in accordance with justice. A good person should be rewarded, while a bad person should be punished, and this shall never take place except on the existence of a superior origin that reckons every person for his deeds. Also, the evidence is established in compliance with the capability of gathering the virtue and happiness, for they can only be gathered together under who is Super Natural, that is All-knowledgeable, All-Powerful. This superior origin that overcomes nature represents the Deity”.

The Russian atheist said: Okay, but for me, the existence of the benefits behind the idea of the deity; made man falsely think of the existence of the deity to attain these benefits.

He proceeded: If the rainbow is a reflection of Sunrays on the rain, it is wrong to say that our benefit in enjoying the rainbow scene urges us to think of the existence of a creator. The discovery of science about the mechanism that showed the rainbow has definitely refuted the existence of a creator.

I told him: Let’s say you were walking in the street and you lost your cellular phone, then you found a public phone, and you wanted to use it to call your wife. Will using your phone, along with your discovery to the mechanism of its operation form, an evidence on the nonexistence of a manufacturer to that phone? Or is that public phone a real existence that has a real manufacturer? The existence of benefit does not disclaim the existence of the thing, rather, it supports it.

In fact, enjoying the beautiful rainbow scene, and discovering the mechanism that shows the bow does not disclaim the existence of the Creator who created the Sun and sent down the rain.

He said: The atheist cannot harm others, and cannot encourage anyone to do bad deeds as some of the observants do in the name of religion.

I told him: Religion calls to abide by good morals and avoiding bad morals. Thus, the bad manners of some Muslims are attributable to their culture or religious illiteracy, as well as being apart from the true religion. Haven’t you heard of the worldly attempts to establish communalism that lead to killing millions of Muslims and Christians? How can you say that the refutation of Deity cannot urge a person to do bad deeds?

One of the communist philosophers said: “We thought we could be better without a deity, and that we can maintain humanity, but we were very wrong, for we destroyed the concept of deity as well as destroyed the humanity itself. “

He said: Describe the Creator to me.

I said: I shall give you an example just to clarify. First, I want you to describe for me an intangible thing such as an “idea”. Give me its weight in grams, length in centimeters, its chemical construction, color, pressure, shape, and figure.

He said: Of course, it is impossible.

I told him: In order for us to describe an intangible thing, we should use terms and descriptions that differ a lot from the terms we use in science, let alone describing the Creator of the whole entire universe.

He said: I feel that the idea of faith resembles bedtime stories or beautiful visions that only release the distress of the person, nothing else.

I told him: These beautiful visions are way better than the nightmare of atheism that you are living in. Be with your One Unique Creator Who provides life and death, and mind nothing else.

He said: The doctor provides life and death as well, when he decides either to treat or neglect his patient, as when the killer holds back from killing his victim, he will have provided it life.

I then mentioned this verse to him:

Have you not considered the one who argued with Abraham about his Lord [merely] because God had given him kingship?  When Abraham said, “My Lord is the one who gives life and causes death,” he said, “I give life and cause death.”  Abraham said, “Indeed, God brings up the sun from the east, so bring it up from the west.”  So, the disbeliever was overwhelmed [by astonishment], and God does not guide the wrongdoing people. [9]

I told him commenting: Do you know what the punishment of God to this man was? God has sent to him one of the weakest and tiniest creatures, a mosquito, that entered his nose, reached to his brain, and made him die. It was to prove that no matter how much a person is powerful and tyrant, he still remains incapable of protecting himself from the tiniest creatures of God.

The Russian atheist proceeded: But the Creator had to ask for my opinion before creating me! How come that the Creator forces someone to a life that he does not want to live?

I told him: You can leave this life by committing suicide, but the fact that you refrain from doing that, and fearing for your life are the biggest evidences that you are content with you being created.

He said: You said that at the beginning of human creation, a covenant has been made between the Creator and the human, who has testified for Him of Oneness and Lordship, but I do not remember that.

I said: Don’t you have your eyes looking to the sky forcibly when you are subject to horror or fear? Don’t your hands rise up without knowing to ask for help from this hidden power that exists in heaven?

He said: Yes

I was starting to hear a tone of grief in his voice. I told him: So, you remember, but in bad times. You are a believer in fact, but you have to remember Him in good times and bad times, so that you get to attain the perfect faith.

This Russian atheist surprised me after that. I told him that I was going to my office to bring him a copy of my book “The original concept of the God” so that he can search in there for the questions that were floating in his mind. He told me he had to leave the mosque instantly since the time specified for visiting the mosque was finished, according to the program of the tourism office he was following. The tour guide was waiting for him in the hall of the mosque, but at a far corner. When I went to get the book and came back again, I entered the hall and he wasn’t there, so I started searching for him everywhere. The tour guide told me he was there at another corner. When I looked at where he pointed, I found him getting up from a Muslim-like prostration position while weeping a lot. I was astonished, and then the tour guide told me joking: What have you done to the man?

I replied: I did nothing, he just asked me many questions and I answered him. So, the tour guide told me: The visitor told me in your absence that he was very impressed, and that he always wanted to be a believer, but he had many un-answered questions in his mind, and he finally found them. I then told the tour guide: Praise be to God, all that is attributable to the bounties of God and His Guidance. God certainly knows that this person is a good man, and that he is looking for the truth, this is why He facilitated the way to him to come to this place.

The proactive and teleological cause:

Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali [10] describes that existence (a book for example) has four causes:

The materialistic cause: The ink, and the paper from which the book was formulated.

The explicit cause: The shape in which the book was formulated.

The proactive cause: The Compiler, the paper maker, and the printer operator.

The teleological cause: The reason behind the compilation of the book.

The atheists however ignored the teleological cause, on the consideration that it is beyond the scientific scope, since none can tell the cause of the invented thing except its inventor.

They also considered that believing in it is against science, thus everyone agreed to believe that the creation of the whole universe has no cause.

Actually, everything a person does regarding any activities, and everything that occurs in the universe of incidents compiles both the mechanism and teleology.

For instance, when we drink a cup of water, we use the mechanism of holding the cup to drink and relieve our thirst.

Also, we use the plane using the mechanism of riding to reach a certain place.

I remember one day an atheist told me: the admittance of the existence of a creator disables the sense and logic.

I told him: The role of the mind is to judge things and accredit them. Thus, the inability of the mind to realize the purpose of human existence for example, does not cancel its role. Rather, it gives the chance for the religion to tell him about what it failed to realize. Like informing him about his Creator, and the origin and purpose of his existence. Therefore, he then tends to understand, judge, and accredit this information. Accordingly, the admission of the existence of a creator has disabled neither the sense nor the logic.

Ibn Al-Tufail [11] said in the story of Hay Ibn Yaqzhan[12]:

“The intellect, according to the inputs he/she has of natural basic ideas can realize the truth in what is relevant with the first principles. He can perceive them from the existence of God. But he is still unable to conceive the truth and essence of what is beyond the secrets of the existence, the creation, and the Creator, that are concealed to us behind the curtains of the unseen. Senses do not realize the purpose of the things, and we see that the intellect is able to perceive the laws and derive the universals and consciousness by the causes, if only he is freed from the stresses of arrogance and atheistic stubbornness. Moreover, the mind is unable to reach the details and parts that the religion presents and they are considered a second-degree fact, despite that it should be accepted in accordance to the major facts. Even the mind which is also capable of realizing the existence of God is unable to realize His Essence, and I do not think that it has anything to do with the scientific research to continue with persistence in searching for the Essence of God. There is nothing like unto Him[13]. This is not only because it is not perceived by the senses, but because there is no scientist who can know everything about the reality of a single fly and its properties, then how is he expected to know about God’s essence. Does a human, who does not know the substance, does not know how he knows, and does not know how to perceive it, desire to realize the truth of God?

I remember a comment that an atheist said one day: science has reached a fact that the computer resembles the human mind and the reason for that is:

First: All materialistic things that have forms and systems can be emulated.

Second: the brain consists from matter and system.

Third: Accordingly, the brain can be emulated.

Fourth: the brain is a computer.

I told him: You are just like the one who says that the computer realizes the information that’s put in! Or like a person who says that the TV is able to perceive whatever programs it presents.

The difference between both is the perception of human mind and his feelings towards what he does.

From worshipping the universe to worshipping the Lord of the universe:

One of the manifestations of the controversy between religion and science in the old ancient Greece, is that Greek prescriptions forbade studying astronomy, the thing that hindered the scientific development because of worshipping the creations of the universe.

The system of city-states in ancient Greek hastened the failure of ancient religion, for the rising certainty that the gods of the city were unable to protect them. The people’s faith in these deities, and their blending with foreign traders spread the doubts and distractors among the citizens. The legends of the ancient local deities continued among the naive peasants and city residents, as well as myths and illusions at the time in which science reached its peak point.

This is why science in ancient Greece did not develop except after some of its free thinkers stopped sanctifying the creations of the universe.

However, the mistake they made was when they considered atheism as a necessity for applying science.

And the story of Abraham, peace be upon him, in the Qur’an teaches that giving up the worship of the universe does not mean refuting the existence of a creator to the universe. It is a call to worship the Lord of the universe.[14]

The Creator has neither a son nor a partner. Jesus Christ was created without a father, and Adam was created without a father or a mother. The Creator creates, and does not beget.

Thus, We showed Abraham the empire of the heavens and the earth, that he might be one of those with certainty. (75) When the night fell over him, he saw a planet. He said, “This is my lord.” But when it set, he said, “I do not love those that set. ” (76) Then, when he saw the moon rising, he said, “This is my lord. ” But when it set, he said, “If my Lord does not guide me, I will be one of the erring people. ” (77) Then, when he saw the sun rising, he said, “This is my lord, this is bigger.” But when it set, he said, “O my people, I am innocent of your idolatry. (78) I have directed my attention towards Him Who created the heavens and the earth—a monotheist—and I am not of the idolaters. “[15]

Why did we fall behind?

The Islamic civilization succeeded in showing the freedom of mind and intellect. Islam itself was responsible for not only the establishment of an international civilization that was shared by many people from different ethnic backgrounds, but also it played a key role in developing the intellectual and cultural life in an unprecedented wide range. Eight hundred years ago, the Arabic language was the scientific and intellectual language that spread all over the world.Why then, did we fall back now?

I was having a conversation with a Muslim friend whose daughter failed in the general secondary test. The girl was known for her negligence to education and study. Also, this incident came across with my friend’s mother’s severe illness. My friend, due to the nature of her job, was not able to stay with her mother to take care of her. Moreover, the failure of the girl necessitated her to restudy the syllabus at home, so it was a good chance for the girl to stay with her grandmother since she was not able to join college that year.

I was surprised when my friend kept telling people that God caused her daughter to fail to be able to stay with her grandmother during her illness.

I told her then: This is really strange, was God the cause of your daughter’s failure or her negligence in studying?

She answered: Haven’t you seen how God facilitated that perfect timing for my daughter’s failure with my mother’s illness?

I told her: And your Lord does injustice to no one [16], God will not wrong your daughter to make things easy for you. With His predestined knowledge, God knew that your daughter is careless and that she will not pass the exam, but He did not force her to fail. If your daughter was diligent, God would have arranged other ways to care for your mother.

I then remembered one of the stories that my mother used to tell me when I was young, and I do not know its source, but it has many true aspects.

The story says: “In Andalusia, when the countries were under the ruling of Islam, one of the tyrant rulers wanted to conquer it, so he sent a spy to get him the news of the armies and the capabilities they have. As soon as he entered one of the cities, he found a little boy at the edge of the city. He was sitting under a tree crying, for he was used to striking two birds with one arrow, but that day he couldn’t strike but one bird only, so he considered that as a failure because of a sin he made. The spy said talking to himself: if these were their kids, how would their men be like. So, he returned from the city to the ruler telling him: You will not be able to face those men, but wait until they get overwhelmed by sins and misdeeds so as you can be able to enter these countries. “

It was Satan who caused them to slip because of some [blame] they had earned. [17]

The important point here is that we do not fall behind because of sins only, but because of the insistence on denying our negligence and wrongs.

Overcoming our enemies and achieving success in life should be preceded by overcoming one’s self, and strive it to strengthen its faith, beware of sins, take the legitimate causes, confess the misdeeds, and always renew the repentance in order to achieve triumph and targeted goals.

Ibn Al-Qayyim[18] said: “Beware of yourself, you will never suffer any affliction except from it . Therefore, do not make peace with it. I swear to Allah that no one shall respect it until he abases it, and none shall honor it until he humiliates it, and none shall reconcile it until he breaks it, and none shall comfort it until he exhausts it, and none shall assure it until he frightens it, and none shall rejoice it until he grieves it.


In the Islamic civilization, the so-called religion vs science conflict was not an issue, rather, some Muslim physicists, astronomers, and mathematics scientists considered themselves in a state of worship to God.

The West have developed in knowledge and science when they abandoned the false beliefs that were based on their distorted religion. This is why they succeeded by neglecting these novelties, started adopting science and logic, and abandoned delving into the abstract metaphysics which is derived from the thoughts of the clergy.

But despite their turning to science in the right way, they lost their values, morals, and the purpose of their existence, by disregarding to adopt the true religion.

For Arabs, it was the contrary, they fell behind when they left the true religion, and turned to science in a wrong way, when they blindly chased and imitated the western pattern of thinking.

If we have a strong and real urge to retrieve the glories of the past, we should correct this situation, and rearrange our priorities. We have the true beliefs and religion that encourage science through the correct spiritual, reasonable, and logical means, and refutes myths and novelties. Thus, we have the basis; it only lacks the structure in order to rebuild the civilization.

[1] Abd al-Rahman “the Entrant” (731–788) was the founder of a Muslim dynasty that ruled the greater part of Iberia for nearly three centuries (including the succeeding Caliphate of Córdoba).

[2] the last Abbasid caliph in Baghdad; (October 796 – 5 January 842), better known by his regnal name al- Mo’tassim biʾllāh, “he who seeks refuge in God”), was the eighth Abbasid caliph, ruling from 833 until his death in 842.

[3] She also wrote: (God is not like this).  It is a book in which she defends Muslims, Islamic civilization and Islamic history.

[4]  (Qur’an 29:19-20).

[5] (Qur’an 3:190-191).

[6] (Qur’an 96:1-5).

[7] (Qur’an 35: 27-28).

[8] This theory points to another attempt by some Catholic theologians to reconcile the organization’s scale of history with some state beliefs.

[9] (Qur’an 2: 258).

[10] An Islamic scholar.

[11] A philosopher and novelist.

[12] An Arabic philosophical novel and an allegorical tale.

[13] (Qur’an 42:11).

[14] Illusion Atheism. Dr. Amr Sharif.

[15] (Qur’an 6: 75-79).

[16] (Qur’an 18:49).

[17] (Qur’an3:155).

[18] An Islamic scholar.

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