Muslims believe in all the earlier revelations of God (the scriptures of Abraham, the book of David, the Torah, The Gospel, etc.). Muslims believe that the original message in all the sacred books is Pure Monotheism (Unifying God in worship). Unlike the Divine scriptures that preceded, the Qur’an has not been kept in the hands of any particular group or clergymen of Muslims which could have led to its misinterpretation or alteration. On the contrary, the Qur’an has always been within the reach of all Muslims who recite it in their daily prayers, and refer to it for all their concerns.
The full text of the Qur’an is available in the exact form as conveyed by Angel Gabriel to Prophet Muhammad at the time of its revelation and in the original language in which it was revealed. It is unique in that it has been preserved by God. There is only one version of the Qur’an in the world.
Muslims believe that God the almighty (Allah) sent Jesus Christ to the children of Israel as a human messenger to confirm the message of Prophet Moses and to give the good tidings of the coming Prophet Muhammad. For Muslims Prophet Jesus was the expected Messiah, whom was prophesied in the Torah – the Book of Moses.
Jesus came to the world from a single woman without any male intervention, which was a miracle made by the Creator to the children of Israel. Jesus Christ according to the faith of Muslims was sent from God with a revelation delivered to him through Angel Gabriel in his own language –Aramaic.
The book of Jesus -The Gospel- throughout history suffered severe changes till it disappeared and was replaced by some of the followers of Jesus with the New Testament, which is a multiple books were written by some of the disciples of Jesus and some others who never met Jesus like saint Paul.
Christens today don’t believe that Jesus received any revelation from God and they considered the New Testament their Holy book, and they believe that it was inspired by God to some Jesus’s disciples.
Burton Mack (scholar) said: ” at least some Christian communities saw Jesus as a teacher of wisdom, a man who tried to teach others how to live. For them, Jesus was not divine, but fully human. These first followers of Jesus differed from other Christians whose ritual and practice was centered on the death and the resurrection of Jesus. They did not emerge as the “winners” of history; perhaps because the maintaining the faith required the existence of a story that included not only the life of Jesus but also his Passion.”
According to the New Testament, Jesus was preaching the gospel, so, what was the real teachings of Jesus? Where is the book of Jesus?
“Jesus went through all the towns and villages, teaching in their synagogues, proclaiming the good news of the kingdom and healing every disease and sickness.” (Matthew 9:35)
” For whoever wants to save their life will lose it, but whoever loses their life for me and for the gospel will save it.” (Mark 8:35)
“One day as Jesus was teaching the people in the temple courts and proclaiming the good news, the chief priests and the teachers of the law, together with the elders, came up to him.” (Luke 20:1)
The “gospel” is a frequently-used word, but what Gospel did Jesus preach? Of the 27 books of the New Testament, only a small fraction can be accepted as the words of Jesus. The Christians boast about the Gospels according to Matthew, according to Mark, according to Luke and according to John, but there is not a single Gospel “according” to Jesus himself!
Modern Bible translations come from two manuscripts:
Codex Sinaiticus, which has more edits than any other manuscript in Biblical history (14800 edits).
Codex Vaticanus which comes from the Vatican.
The term Bible Comes from Greek Bibilios means a collection of books which includes:
– The Old Testament (OT). Believed by Jews and Christians. Written in Hebrew, Aramaic (Before Jesus)
– The New Testament (NT). Believed by Christians only. Written in Greek then Latin and finally English (After Jesus)
While there can be plenty of arguments about the origins of various Biblical texts, what does science have to say about how old they are?
(New high-tech research) used ground-breaking technology of “virtual unwrapping” to read a highly-damaged ancient scroll, finding it to contain the Old Testament Book of Leviticus and dating it to 300 A.D. The so-called ‘En-Gedi’ scroll thus became one of the oldest Biblical texts in existence. But not the oldest.
The famous Dead Sea Scrolls, which contain most of the books of the Hebrew Bible, date to 408 BC to 300 A.D.
So the oldest Biblical text is found about 2700 years old. Of course, this is just what we’ve been able to locate and date. The first Biblical stories were passed down orally and only written down later by various authors. Most Biblical scholars believe the Book of Genesis was the first book to be written down. This would have happened around 1450 BC to 1400 BC. So perhaps about 3400 years or so ago.
That honor would belong to the Silver Scrolls, found at Ketef Hinnom in Israel, which contain texts from the Hebrew Bible that date to about 700-650 BCE.
There have been different versions in history and different religions interpret the texts in their own way, adding or taking away. The commonly-used English-language version is the King James Bible, which was printed in 1611. But the oldest text would have to be the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh) which refers to the entire Hebrew Bible. The word Tanakh is an acronym for (Torah, Nevi’im, and Ketuvim, meaning Law, Prophets, and Writings, respectively.
• Old Testament
The Old Testament (known as the Jewish Tanakh) is the first 39 books in most Christian Bibles. The name stands for the original promise with God (to the descendants of Abraham in particular) prior to the coming of Jesus Christ in the New Testament (or the new promise). The Old Testament contains the creation of the universe, the history of the patriarchs, the exodus from Egypt, the formation of Israel as a nation, the subsequent decline and fall of the nation, the Prophets (who spoke for God), and the Wisdom Books.
Genesis (50 Chapters)
Genesis speaks of beginnings and is foundational to the understanding of the rest of the Bible. It is supremely a book that speaks about relationships, highlighting those between God and his creation, between God and humankind, and between human beings.
The stories of Adam and Eve, Cain and Abel, Noah and the Ark, the Tower of Babel, Abraham and Isaac, Jacob’s ladder, and Joseph’s coat of many colors are recorded.
Author: Traditionally Moses
Exodus (40 Chapters)
Exodus describes the history of the Israelites leaving Egypt after slavery. The book lays a foundational theology in which God reveals his name, his attributes, his redemption, his law and how he is to be worshiped.
Author: Traditionally Moses
Leviticus (27 Chapters)
Leviticus receives its name from the Septuagint (the pre-Christian Greek translation of the Old Testament) and means “concerning the Levites” (the priests of Israel). It serves as a manual of regulations enabling the holy King to set up his earthly throne among the people of his kingdom. It explains how they are to be his holy people and to worship him in a holy manner.
Author: traditionally Moses
Numbers (36 Chapters)
Israel fails to trust and obey God, and wanders in the wilderness for 40 years. Numbers relates the story of Israel’s journey from Mount Sinai to the plains of Moab on the border of Canaan. The book tells of the murmuring and rebellion of God’s people and of their subsequent judgment.
Author: Traditionally Moses
Deuteronomy (34 Chapters)
Moses gives Israel instructions (in some ways, a recap of the laws in Exodus–Numbers) for how to love and obey God in the Promised Land.
Deuteronomy (“repetition of the Law”) serves as a reminder to God’s people about His covenant. The book is a “pause” before Joshua’s conquest begins and a reminder of what God required.
Author: Traditionally Moses
When examining the identity of the Bible writers, it’s obvious from the commentaries that many Bible books are written by anonymous people.
Joshua (24 Chapters)
Joshua is a story of conquest and fulfillment for the people of God. After many years of slavery in Egypt and 40 years in the desert, the Israelites were finally allowed to enter the land promised to their fathers.
Judges (21 Chapters)
The book of Judges depicts the life of Israel in the Promised Land—from the death of Joshua to the rise of the monarchy. It tells of urgent appeals to God in times of crisis and apostasy, moving the Lord to raise up leaders (judges) through whom He throws off foreign oppressors and restores the land to peace.
1 Samuel (31 Chapters)
Israel demands a king, who turns out to be quite a disappointment. Samuel relates God’s establishment of a political system in Israel headed by a human king. Through Samuel’s life, we see the rise of the monarchy and the tragedy of its first king, Saul.
2 Samuel (24 Chapters)
David, becomes king of Israel. After the failure of King Saul, 2 Samuel depicts David as a true (though imperfect) representative of the ideal theocratic king. Under David’s rule the Lord caused the nation to prosper, to defeat its enemies, and to realize the fulfillment of His promises.
1 Kings (22 Chapters)
1 Kings continues the account of the monarchy in Israel and God’s involvement through the prophets. After David, his son Solomon ascends the throne of a United Kingdom, but this unity only lasts during his reign. The book explores how each subsequent king in Israel and Judah answers God’s call, or as often happens, fails to listen.
Author: According to Jewish tradition the author of Kings was Jeremiah, who would have been alive during the fall of Jerusalem in 586 BCE.
2 Kings (25 Chapters)
2 Kings carries the historical account of Judah and Israel forward. The kings of each nation are judged in light of their obedience to the covenant with God. Ultimately, the people of both nations are exiled for disobedience.
The Later Prophets are divided into two groups.
1- the Major prophets:
Ezekiel (48 Chapters)
The Old Testament in general and the prophets in particular presuppose and teach God’s sovereignty over all creation and the course of history.
Isaiah (66 Chapters)
Isaiah son of Amoz is often thought of as the greatest of the writing prophets. His name means “The Lord saves.” Isaiah is a book that unveils the full dimensions of God’s judgment and salvation.
Author: Isaiah (and maybe some of his followers)
Jeremiah (52 Chapters)
God sends a prophet to warn Israel about the coming Babylonian captivity, but the people don’t take the news very well.
2.The 12 minor Prophets
Hosea (14 Chapters)
Hosea is told to marry a prostitute who leaves him, and he must bring her back: a picture of God’s relationship with Israel.
Joel (3 Chapters)
God sends a plague of locusts to Judge Israel, but his judgment on the surrounding nations is coming, too.
Amos (9 Chapters)
A shepherd named Amos preaches against the injustice of the Northern Kingdom of Israel.
Obadiah (1 Chapters)
Obadiah warns the neighboring nation of Edom that they will be judged for plundering Jerusalem.
Micah (7 Chapters)
Micah confronts the leaders of Israel and Judah regarding their injustice, and prophecies that one day the Lord himself will rule in perfect justice.
Nahum (3 Chapters)
Nahum foretells of God’s judgment on Nineveh, the capital of Assyria.
Jonah (4 Chapters)
A disobedient prophet runs from God, is swallowed by a great fish, and then preaches God’s message to the city of Nineveh.
Author: Traditionally Jonah
Habakkuk (3 Chapters)
Habakkuk pleads with God to stop the injustice and violence in Judah, but he is surprised to find that God will use the even more violent Babylonians to do so.
Zephaniah (3 Chapters)
God warns that he will judge Israel and the surrounding nations, but also that he will restore them in peace and justice.
Haggai (2 Chapters)
The people have abandoned the work of restoring God’s temple in Jerusalem, and so Haggai takes them to task.
Zechariah (14 Chapters)
The prophet Zechariah calls Israel to return to God, and records prophetic visions that show what’s happening behind the scenes.
Author: Most modern scholars believe the Book of Zechariah was written by at least two different people.
Malachi (4 Chapters)
God has been faithful to Israel, but they continue to live disconnected from him, so God sends Malachi to call them out. Malachi is merely a transliteration of a Hebrew word meaning “my messenger.” The Book of Malachi, the last of the Twelve (Minor) Prophets, was written by an anonymous.
Psalms (150 Chapters)
A collection of 150 songs that Israel sang to God (and to each other), kind of like a hymnal for the ancient Israelites.
Author: Many authors
Proverbs (31 Chapters)
A collection of sayings written to help people make wise decisions that bring about justice.
Author: Solomon and other wise men
Job (42 Chapters)
Satan attacks a righteous man named Job, and Job and his friends argue about why terrible things are happening to him.
Song of Solomon (Song of Songs) (8 Chapters)
A love song (or collection of love songs) celebrating love, desire, and marriage.
Author: Unknown. (Solomon’s name is a later addition)
Ruth (4 Chapters)
Two widows lose everything, and find hope in Israel, which leads to the birth of the future King David.
Lamentations (5 Chapters)
A collection of dirges lamenting the fall of Jerusalem after the Babylonian attacks.
Author: Traditionally Jeremiah
Ecclesiastes (12 Chapters)
A philosophical exploration of the meaning of life with a surprisingly nihilistic tone for the Bible.
Author: Traditionally Solomon (but it could have been written about Solomon, or in the style of Solomon)
Esther (10 Chapters)
Someone hatches a genocidal plot to bring about Israel’s extinction, and Esther must face the emperor to ask for help.
Daniel (12 Chapters)
Daniel becomes a high-ranking wise man in the Babylonian and Persian empires, and has prophetic visions concerning Israel’s future.
Author: Traditionally Daniel
Ezra (10 Chapters)
The Israelites rebuild the temple in Jerusalem, and a scribe named Ezra teaches the people to once again obey God’s laws.
Nehemiah (13 Chapters)
The city of Jerusalem is in bad shape, so Nehemiah rebuilds the wall around the city.
1 Chronicles ( 29 Chapters)
This is a brief history of Israel from Adam to David, culminating with David commissioning the temple of God in Jerusalem.
Author: Traditionally Ezra
2 Chronicles (36 Chapters)
David’s son Solomon builds the temple, but after centuries of rejecting God, the Babylonians take the southern Israelites captive and destroy the temple.
Author: Traditionally Ezra
• New Testament
New Testament History
The Gospel of Matthew
This is an account of Jesus’ life, death, and resurrection, focusing on Jesus’ role as the true king of the Jews.
The Gospel of Mark
This brief account of Jesus’ earthly ministry highlights Jesus’ authority and servanthood.
Author: John Mark
The Gospel of Luke
Luke writes the most thorough account of Jesus’ life, pulling together eyewitness testimonies to tell the full story of Jesus.
The Gospel of John
John lists stories of signs and miracles with the hope that readers will believe in Jesus.
Jesus returns to the Father, the Holy Spirit comes to the church, and the gospel of Jesus spreads throughout the world.
Epistles of saint Paul
Paul summarizes how the gospel of Jesus works in a letter to the churches at Rome, where he plans to visit.
Paul writes a disciplinary letter to a fractured church in Corinth, and answers some questions that they’ve had about how Christians should behave.
Paul writes a letter of reconciliation to the church at Corinth, and clears up some concerns that they have.
Paul hears that the Galatian churches have been lead to think that salvation comes from the law of Moses, and writes a (rather heated) letter telling them where the false teachers have it wrong.
Paul writes to the church at Ephesus about how to walk in grace, peace, and love.
An encouraging letter to the church of Philippi from Paul, telling them how to have joy in Christ.
Paul writes the church at Colossae a letter about who they are in Christ, and how to walk in Christ.
Paul has heard a good report on the church at Thessalonica, and encourages them to “excel still more” in faith, hope, and love.
Paul instructs the Thessalonians on how to stand firm until the coming of Jesus.
Paul gives Timothy instruction on how to lead a church with sound teaching and a godly example.
Paul is nearing the end of his life, and encourages Timothy to continue preaching the word.
Paul advises Titus on how to lead orderly, counter-cultural churches on the island of Crete.
Paul strongly recommends that Philemon accept his runaway slave as a brother, not a slave.
A letter encouraging Christians to cling to Christ despite persecution.
A letter telling Christians to live in ways that demonstrate their faith in action.
Author: James (likely the brother of Jesus)
Peter writes to Christians who are being persecuted, encouraging them to testify to the truth and live accordingly.
Peter writes a letter reminding Christians about the truth of Jesus, and warning them that false teachers will come.
John writes a letter to Christians about keeping Jesus’ commands, loving one another, and important things they should know.
A very brief letter about walking in truth, love, and obedience.
An even shorter letter about Christian fellowship.
A letter encouraging Christians to content for the faith, even though ungodly persons have crept in unnoticed.
John sees visions of things that have been, things that are, and things that are yet to come.
There are many Bibles that are used by different Christian sects and all of these sects say that their book, though different, is the word of God. Such Bibles are:
The Revised Standard Version 1952 & 1971
New American Standard Bible
The Holy Bible
New International Version
the Living Bible
New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures used by Jehovah Witnesses
Roman Catholic Version and the King James Version
In addition to the many different Christian sects and Bibles, there are also different men, not Prophets, who founded these sects and are using various interpretations of the Bible and/or man-made doctrines as their creed.
The Roman Catholic Bible was published at Rheims, France, in 1582, from Jerome’s Latin Vulgate and reproduced at Douay in 1609. As such the RCV (Roman Catholic Version) is the oldest Version that one can still buy today. Despite its antiquity, the whole of the Protestant world, including the “cults” condemn the Roman Catholic Bible (RCV) because it contains seven extra “books” which they contemptuously refer to as the “apocrypha” i.e. of doubtful authority.
Although the warning from changing the word of God in the Apocalypse was very clear, which is the last book in the RCV (renamed as “Revelation” by the Protestants).
“If any man shall add to these things (or delete) God shall add unto him the plagues written in this Book.”(Revelation 22:18-19)
But still we find for example the Protestants have excluded many books from their Book of God!
The common books to Catholics and Orthodox and were excluded by the Protestants:
• 1 Maccabees
• 2 Maccabees
• Book of Wisdom
• Letter of Jeremiah
• Additions to Daniel
• Additions to Esther
Greek & Slavonic Orthodox
• 1 Esdras
• Prayer of Manasseh
• Psalm 151
• 3 Maccabees
• 2 Esdras
• 4 Maccabees
“King James Version (KJV) ” is the only Bible available in 1500 languages of the lesser developed nations of the world. The majority of Christians — both Catholics and Protestant — use the Authorized (AV) or the King James Version (KJV) as it is alternatively called.
Winston Churchill said about the Authorized Version (AV) of the Protestant Bible, which is also widely known as the ‘King James Version (KJV)’:
“The authorized version of the bible was published in 1611 by the will and command of his majesty king James the 1st whose name it bears till today.”
“the king James version (alternative description of AV) has with good reason been termed ‘the noblest monument of English prose.’ its revisers in 1881 expressed admiration for ‘its simplicity, its dignity, its power, its happy turns of expression the music of its cadences, and the felicities of its rhythm.’ it entered, as no other book has, into the making of the personal character and the public institutions of the English-speaking peoples. we owe to it an incalculable debt.”
The orthodox Christian scholars of ‘the highest eminence.’ Say: “yet the king James version has grave defects. and that these defects are so many and so serious as to call for revision. another galaxy of doctors of divinity are now required to produce an encyclopedia explaining the cause of those grave and serious defects in their holy writ and their reasons for eliminating them. “
Winston says: The Revised Standard Version, was first published in 1611, and then it was revised in 1881 (RV), and then it was re-revised and brought up to date as the Revised Standard Version (RSV) 1952, and again it was re-rerevised in 1971 (still RSV for short). The opinion of Christendom of this most revised Bible (RSV) is:
“The finest version which has been produced in the present century.” (church of England newspaper)
“a completely fresh translation by scholars of the highest eminence.” (times literary supplement)
“the well-loved characteristics of the authorized version combined with a new accuracy of translation.” (life and work)
The most accurate and close rendering of the original (The Times). The publishers (Collins), in their notes on the Bible at the end of their production, say on page 10: “This bible (RSV), is the product of thirty-two scholars, assisted by an advisory committee representing fifty co-operating denominations.”
(page III, paragraph six of the preface of the RSV) we read about the (AV) Bible:
“The Origin and Growth of the English Bible”, you will note that all the Biblical Versions prior to the Revised Version of 1881 were dependent upon the ancient copies, those dating only five or six hundred years after Jesus. The Revisers of the RSV 1952, were the first Bible scholars who were able to tap the Most Ancient Copies fully, dating three and four centuries after Christ. We agree that the closer to the source the more authentic is the document. Naturally most Ancient deserves credence more than mere ancient. But not finding a word about Jesus being “taken up” or “carried up” into heaven in the Most Ancient manuscripts, the Christian fathers expurgated those references from the RSV 1952. “
The Jehovah’s Witnesses in their “AWAKE!” Magazine dated 8 September, 1957, carried this startling headline ‘50000 errors in The Bible?’
Mrs. Ellen g. white, a ‘prophetess’ of the seventh day Adventist church, in her Bible commentary vol. 1, page 14 said:
“The Bible we read today is the work of many copyists who have in most instances done their work with marvelous accuracy. but copyists have not been infallible, and God most evidently has not seen fit to preserve them altogether from error in transcribing.”
Literally, hundreds of gospels and religious writings were hidden from the people. Some of those writings were written by Jesus’ disciples, and many of them were eyewitness accounts of Jesus’ actions. The Nicea Council decided to destroy all gospels written in Hebrew, which resulted in the burning of nearly three hundred accounts. If these writings were not more authentic than the four present gospels, they were of equal authenticity. Some of them are still available such as the Gospel of Barnabas and the Shepherd of Hermas which agree with the Qur’an. The Gospel of Barnabas, until now, is the only eyewitness account of the life and mission of Jesus. Even today, the whole of the Protestant word, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Seventh Day Adventists and other sects and denominations condemn the Roman Catholic version of the Bible because it contains the “extra” books.
 Ahmad Deedat. “Is the Bible the word of God”
NUMBER OF BOOKS IN THE BIBLE OF DIFFERENT CHRISTIAN SECTS:
PROTESTANT 39 books in the Old Testament 27 books in the New Testament, 66 Total.
CATHOLIC 46 books in the Old Testament 27 in the New Testament, 73 Total
GREEK ORTHODOX 51 books in the Old Testament 28 in the New Testament 79 Total
RUSSIAN ORTHODOX 51 books in the Old Testament 28 in the New Testament 79 Total
ETHIOPEAN ORTHODOX 46 books in the Old Testament 35 in the New Testament 81 Total :
 “Biblical Canon: Formation & Variations in Different Christian Traditions”
By Rev. Maksym Podhajski Szwajcaria