The Philosophy of Science

Philosophy of science is a branch of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science. The central questions of this study concern what qualifies as science, the reliability of scientific theories, and the ultimate purpose of science.

One day a Mexican atheist lady told me:

I believe in science. Through science, the existence of a creator to the universe can not be proven. Therefore, the Creator does not exist.

I told her from what I read and liked[1]:

You have to understand that according to the philosophy of science, for a scientific conclusion to be scientific it cannot refer to divine power or divine wisdom. This does not mean that the Creator does not exist, but this is what the scientific conclusions are. They are restricted that way.

I added:

We have to understand as well the limitations of science. One of the limits of science is that at any moment scientists are restricted to the observations they have at hand. This includes direct and indirect observations. This is exactly what the philosopher Elliott Sober says.

Philosopher of science Elliot Sober makes this point in his essay, Empiricism: “At any moment scientists are limited by the observations they have at hand… the limitation is that science is forced to restrict its attention to problems that observations can solve.”[2]

The faith in the Creator is based on the fact that things do not appear without a cause or by chance, not to mention this vast inhabited material universe and its creatures who possess an intangible consciousness and obey the laws of non-material mathematics. In addition, we need an independent, immaterial, eternal source to explain a finite, material universe.

I also said:

All that science can do is to discover the universal laws which were created by the Creator. Science did not originate these laws. You cannot deny the existence of the author of any book just because you found the book. They are not alternatives.

I said as well:

The Creator is unique and we should not try to project our attributes and failings to Him.   If a battery-operated toy could imagine, it would most probably think that it was made by a battery-operated being. Human beings fall into this trap: we cannot imagine that God exists in His own essence without a cause; because we see everything around us in need of such a cause.

Science deals with contingents phenomena that can be observed somewhere. But the Creator cannot be observed in any way because He is not just like a contingent thing. The Creator does not have limited physical quality. The Creator is a necessary being. Science can only deal with contingent realities, not necessary realities.

The Mexican atheist then said:

We came from nothing.

I said:

Can something come from nothingness?

I also said:

For example, The cause, when writing a story, is the reason that things happen throughout the plot. This means that without a cause, the story would be inactive and nothing more would happen. How boring of a story would that be? So, cause and effect are extremely important when it comes to keeping the story moving along. It allows the characters, and the reader, to move from one plot point to another.

So, What about the story of our lives and our destiny after death?

She said:

For me the Creator does not exist, therefore, he doesn’t exist. Everyone can believe in what they want.

I told her:

Yes, you can believe in what you want, but your way of thinking does not negate reality.

She said:

No, it absolutely negates the reality.

I told her:

So, for me, your parents don’t exist. Does this conviction of mine make your parents not exist?

The woman marveled at my answer and fell silent.

I told her:

You are deceiving yourself. You try to deny the existence of the Creator because you want to escape responsibility. You don’t want to get judged and punished for your sins.

The Creator exists whether you believe it or not.

  • He is the Creator of the universe and its contents.
  • He is the Creator of Ram, Krishna, and Buddha.
  • He is the Creator of Prophet Muhammad, Jesus, and Moses, peace be upon them all.
  • He does not come to earth in any human form or an animal form.
  • He has no children. He created Prophet Jesus without a father as de created Prophet Adam without a father or a mother. He creates but begets not.
  • Humans have to resort to Him by supplicating to Him directly, not through any priest، saint، idol, or through the prophet Muhammad or any of his family members.
  • It is the Creator’s right to be worshipped alone, and human’s right to have a direct connection with Him.

Islam teaches that the true religion of God is always in harmony with human nature. It is one religion, easy, understandable, and straightforward. It is suitable for every time and place. The existence of many religions results from mediating between the Creator and humans in worship. The key to humanity towards harmony is when people worship the Creator directly without an intermediary, believing in Muhammad the final Messenger and following his teachings so that hearts can unite on one religion.



[2]Sober, E. (2010). Empiricism. In: Psillos, S and Curd, M, ed, The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Science, pp. 137-138.

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